Whisky or whiskey is a type of distilled alcoholic beverage made from fermented grain mash. Various grains which may be malted are used for different varieties, including barleycornryeand wheat. Whisky is typically aged in wooden casksgenerally made of charred white oak. Whisky is a strictly regulated spirit worldwide prostatite e whisky many classes and types. The typical unifying characteristics of the different classes and types are the fermentation of grains, distillation, and aging in wooden barrels.
The word whisky or whiskey is an anglicisation of the Classical Gaelic word uisce or uisge meaning "water" now written as uisce in Modern Irish, and uisge in Scottish Gaelic. Distilled alcohol was known in Latin as aqua vitae "water of life". Early forms prostatite e whisky the word in English included prostatite e whiskyusquebaughusquebathand usquebae Much is made of the word's two spellings: whisky and whiskey.
One is that the spelling difference is simply a matter of regional language convention for the spelling of a word, indicating that the spelling varies depending on the intended audience or the background or personal preferences of the writer like the difference between color and colour ; or recognize and recogniseprostatite e whisky  and the other is that the spelling should depend on the style or origin of the spirit being described.
There is general agreement that when quoting the proper name printed on a label, the spelling on the label should not be altered. The spelling whiskey is common in Ireland and the United States, prostatite e whisky whisky is used in all other whisky-producing countries.
From the late eighteenth century to the mid twentieth century, American writers used prostatite e whisky spellings interchangeably until the introduction of newspaper style guides.
Whisky made in Scotland is known as Scotch whiskyor simply as "Scotch" especially in North America. It is possible that distillation was practised by the Babylonians in Mesopotamia in the 2nd prostatite e whisky BCwith perfumes and aromatics being distilled,  but this is subject to uncertain and disputed interpretations of evidence.
The earliest certain chemical distillations were by Greeks in Alexandria in the 1st century AD,  but these were not distillations of alcohol. The medieval Arabs adopted the prostatite e whisky technique of the Alexandrian Greeks, and written records in Arabic begin in the 9th century, but again these were not distillations of alcohol. Distilling technology passed from the medieval Arabs to the medieval Latins, with the earliest records in Latin prostatite e whisky the early 12th century.
The earliest records of the distillation of alcohol are in Italy in the 13th century, where alcohol was distilled from wine. The art of distillation spread to Ireland and Scotland no later than the 15th century, as did the common European practice of distilling "aqua vitae", spirit alcohol, primarily for medicinal purposes.
James IV of Scotland r. Whisky production moved out of a monastic setting and into personal homes and farms as newly independent monks needed to find a way to earn money for themselves. Prostatite e whisky distillation process was still in its infancy; whisky prostatite e whisky was not allowed to age, and as a result tasted very raw and brutal compared to today's versions.
Renaissance-era whisky was also very potent and not diluted. Over time prostatite e whisky evolved into a much smoother drink. With a license to distill Irish whiskey fromthe Old Bushmills Distillery in Northern Ireland is the oldest licensed whiskey distillery in the world. Inthe Acts of Union merged England and Scotland, and thereafter taxes on it rose dramatically. After the English Malt Tax ofmost of Scotland's distillation was either prostatite e whisky down or forced underground.
Scotch whisky was hidden under altars, in coffins, and in any available space to avoid the governmental excisemen or revenuers. For this reason, the drink became known as moonshine. In America, whisky was used as currency during the American Revolution ; George Washington operated a large distillery at Prostatite e whisky Vernon.
Given the distances and primitive transportation network of colonial America, farmers often found it easier and more prostatite e whisky to convert corn to whisky and transport it to market prostatite e whisky that form.
It also was a highly coveted sundry and when an additional excise tax was levied against it inthe Whiskey Rebellion erupted. The drinking of Scotch whisky was introduced to India in the nineteenth century. The first distillery in India was built by Prostatite e whisky Dyer at Kasauli in the late s. The operation was soon shifted to nearby Solan prostatite e whisky to the British summer capital Shimlaas there was an prostatite e whisky supply of fresh spring water there.
Inthe UK passed the Excise Act, legalizing the distillation for a feeand this put a practical end to the large-scale production of Scottish moonshine. InAeneas Coffey patented the Coffey stillallowing for cheaper and more efficient distillation of whisky. InAndrew Usher began producing a blended whisky that prostatite e whisky traditional pot still whisky with that from the new Coffey still.
The new distillation method was scoffed prostatite e whisky by some Irish distillers, who clung to their traditional pot stills. Many Irish contended that the new product was, in fact, not whisky at all.
By the s, the French brandy industry prostatite e whisky devastated by the phylloxera pest that ruined much of the grape crop; as a result, whisky became the primary liquor in many markets. During the Prohibition era in the United States lasting from toall alcohol sales were banned in the country. The federal government made an exemption for whisky prescribed by a doctor and sold through licensed pharmacies.
During this time, the Walgreens pharmacy chain grew from 20 retail prostatite e whisky to almost A still for making whisky is usually made of coppersince it removes sulfur -based compounds from the alcohol that would make it unpleasant to drink.
Modern stills are made of stainless steel with copper innards piping, for example, will be lined with copper along with copper plate inlays along still walls. The simplest standard distillation apparatus is commonly known as a pot stillconsisting of a single heated chamber and a vessel to collect purified alcohol.
Column stills are frequently used in the production of grain whisky and are the most commonly used type of still in the production of bourbon and other American whiskeys. Column stills behave like a series of single pot stills, formed in a long vertical tube.
Whiskies do not mature in the bottle, only in the caskso the "age" of a whisky prostatite e whisky only the time between distillation and bottling. This reflects how much the cask has interacted with the whisky, changing its chemical makeup and taste. Whiskies that have been bottled for many years may have a rarity value, but are not "older" and not necessarily "better" than a more recent whisky that matured in wood for a similar time. After a decade or two, additional aging in a barrel does not necessarily improve a whisky.
While aging in wooden prostatite e whisky, especially American oak and French prostatite e whisky casks, whisky undergoes six processes that contribute to its final flavor: extractionevaporationoxidationconcentrationprostatite e whiskyand colouration. Whisky is probably the best known of Scotland's manufactured products.
Whisky or whisky-like products are produced prostatite e whisky most grain-growing areas. Prostatite e whisky differ in base product, alcoholic content, and quality. American whiskey is distilled from a fermented mash of cereal grain. It must have the taste, aroma, and other characteristics commonly attributed to whiskey.
Some types of whiskey listed in the United States federal prostatite e whisky  are:. Only water may be added to the final product; the addition of colouring or prostatite e whisky is prohibited.
These whiskeys must be aged in new charred-oak containers, except for corn whiskey, which does not have to be aged. If it is aged, it must be in uncharred oak barrels or in used barrels. Corn whiskey is usually unaged and sold as a legal version of moonshine. If one of these whiskey types reaches two years aging or beyond, it is additionally designated as straighte.
US regulations recognize other whiskey categories,  including:. Another important labelling in the marketplace is Tennessee whiskeyof which Jack Daniel'sGeorge DickelCollier prostatite e whisky McKeel and Benjamin Prichard's  prostatite e whisky the only brands currently bottled. The main difference defining a Tennessee whiskey is that it must be filtered through sugar maple charcoal before aging, known as the Lincoln County Process.
Benjamin Prichard's, which is not so filtered, was grandfathered in when the requirement was introduced in Canadian whiskies may contain caramel and flavouring in addition to the distilled prostatite e whisky spirits, and there is no maximum limit on the alcohol level of the distillation. Canadian whiskies are available throughout the world and are a culturally significant export. The historic popularity of Canadian prostatite e whisky in the United States is partly a result of rum runners illegally importing it into the country during the period of American Prohibition.
Denmark began producing whisky early in The second Danish distilled single malt whisky for sale was Edition No. It was distilled inusing water from the Greenlandic ice sheet, and entered the market in March Another distillery is Stauning Whiskybased in Jutland.
There are currently at least six distilleries producing English whisky. Though England is not very well known for making whisky, there were distillers previously operating in London, Liverpool and Bristol until the late 19th century, after which prostatite e whisky of English single malt whisky ceased until There are two working distilleries in Finland and a third one is under construction.
Whisky retail sales in Finland are controlled solely by the state alcohol monopoly Alko and advertising of strong alcoholic beverages is banned.
On the bottle and tag design worked Georgian product designer Zviad Tsikolia. Georgian whisky is available on markets such are: ChinaPolandUkraineKazakhstan and etc. German whisky production is a relatively recent phenomenon having only started in the last 30 years. The styles produced resemble those made in Ireland, Scotland and the United States: single malts, blends, wheat, and bourbon-like styles. There is no standard spelling of German whiskies with distilleries using both "whisky" and "whiskey".
In there were 23 distilleries in Germany producing whisky. Distilled alcoholic beverages that are labelled as "whisky" in India are commonly blends based on neutral spirits that are distilled from fermented molasses with only a small portion consisting of traditional malt whisky, usually about 10 to 12 percent.
Outside India, such a drink would more likely be labelled a rum. Irish whiskeys are normally distilled three times, Cooley Distillery being the exception as they also double distill. By law, Irish whiskey must be produced in Ireland and aged in wooden casks for a period of no less than three years, prostatite e whisky in practice it is usually three or four times that period. There are several types of whiskey common to Ireland: single maltsingle grain, blended whiskey and pure pot still whiskey.
Irish whiskey was once the most popular spirit in the world, though a long period of decline from the late 19th century to the late 20th century greatly damaged the industry,  so much so that, although Ireland boasted over 30 distilleries in the s, a century later this number had fallen to just three.
However, Irish whiskey has seen a great resurgence in popularity since the late twentieth century, prostatite e whisky has been the fastest growing spirit in the world every year since As of midIreland now has twenty-five distilleries in operation, with twenty-four more in either planned or under development. Japan produces both single malt and blended whiskies.
The base is a mash of malted barley, dried in kilns fired with a little peat although less than what is used for some peated Scotch whiskiesand is distilled using the pot still method. Japanese whiskies prostatite e whisky as Suntory and Nikka won many prestigious international awards between and Japanese whisky has earned a reputation for quality.